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Urban experts agree, pointing out that there has also been a substantial rise in migrants into Karachi from the North West Frontier Province's Pashtun community. It is perhaps this fact which is most galling for the MQM, which stormed into control of Karachi following ethnic riots which began in the mid-1980s. At that time, disagreements over the identity question led to clashes between the Urdu-speaking and Pashtun-speaking communities. The MQM rose to power on the back of these riots which left hundreds of people dead and established the party's position in Karachi. But critics have accused the party of using the "ethnic card" to keep control over Karachi. Ethnicity remains a touchy topic in the metropolis and since 2007 there have been rumblings of a return to the problems of before. "Riots and violence did take place between 1985 and 1988, but our leaders met and reached a conclusive peace accord," says Aminullah Khattak, secretary general of the Sindh chapter of the mostly Pashtun Awami National Party (ANP). "We wanted to end it, and it did end at that time." "The thing that has started it again is that the Pashtuns living over here have progressed economically," he says. "Some people believe that they will remain watchmen or labourers, or remain engaged in menial economic activities all their lives. "But they've become well educated, they've progressed economically, they want to get better jobs." The ANP argues that "Talebanisation" is not a problem in Karachi, but ...